By I.M. Yaglom, I.G. Volosova

The current e-book is predicated at the lecture given by means of the writer to senior students in Moscow at the twentieth of April of 1966. the excellence among the fabric of the lecture and that of the e-book is that the latter contains workouts on the finish of every part (the so much tough difficulties within the workouts are marked via an asterisk). on the finish of the booklet are put solutions and tricks to a few of the issues. The reader is suggested to resolve many of the difficulties, if now not all, simply because simply after the issues were solved can the reader be certain that he is aware the subject material of the publication. The booklet includes a few non-compulsory fabric (in specific, Sec. 7 and Appendix that are starred within the desk of contents) that may be passed over within the first analyzing of the e-book. The corresponding elements of the textual content of the publication are marked through one big name initially and through stars on the finish. even though, within the moment interpreting of the e-book you might want to learn Sec. 7 because it comprises a few fabric vital for useful functions of the speculation of Boolean algebras.

The bibliography given on the finish of the ebook lists a few books which are of use to the readers who are looking to examine the idea of Boolean algebras extra thoroughly.

The writer is thankful to S. G. Gindikin for priceless recommendation and to F. I. Kizner for the thoroughness and initiative in enhancing the booklet.

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Namely, by a should be meant the proposition whose truth set is the set A where A is the truth set of the proposition a. In other words, the truth set of the proposition à contains those and only those elements of the universal set I which are not contained in the set A, that is the elements which are not contained in the truth set of the proposition a. For instance, if the b "IT IS FALSE THAT the figure is triangular" Fig. 26 proposition a asserts that "the pupil has bad marks" then the proposition a means "the pupil has no bad marks".

The just stated property of the Boolean algebras which allows us to obtain automatically (that is without proof) from any equality a new one1) is called the Principle of Duality and the formulas which are obtained from each other with the aid of this principle are called dual formulas. e. together with every law it also includes another law dual to the former, that is the law which is obtained from the former law by interchanging the addition and the multiplication and by interchanging simultaneously the elements О and I.

2. Let the proposition a assert t h a t : (a) " 2 X 2 = = 4"; (b) "the pupil is a boy"; (c) "an elephant, is an insect"; (d) "he can fly". W h a t is the meaning of the proposition a in all these cases? Is the proposition à necessarily true? Is it necessarily false? 3. Let the proposition a mean "the pupil can play chess" and let the proposition b be "the pupil can play draughts". Explain the meaning of the following propositions: (a) a + b; (b) ab; (c) a + b; (e) a+Ъ; (f) ab; (g) ab; (d) a-\~T>; (h) ab 4.